Cpu fans best buy: Best CPU Coolers 2023: Air and Liquid Cooling Picks

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School supplies, made easy

The success of your students starts with the right supplies. Whether you’re a parent or caregiver with one or more kids in school, or a teacher responsible for an entire classroom, Staples is a one-stop shop for all the school supplies you need. From writing supplies and paper to school tech and furniture, we have everything on your back-to-school list.

Shop by grade

Staples makes it easy to get exactly what your students need by organizing all the essentials by grade. Shop for preschool supplies like learning toys and rest mats, or elementary school supplies for everything your kids need from kindergarten through 5th grade. Our selection of middle school supplies includes more advanced items like planners and scientific calculators, and you can find everything you need for high school in our high school supplies section. Getting ready for college? From dorm essentials to laptops, get everything you need from our selection of college supplies.

All the essentials for school

Whether you want to shop by subject or are looking for furniture and supplies for learning at home, we’ve got the right selection. Browse classroom essentials including cleaning supplies, storage, classroom décor, snacks, and teacher supplies. For everything from school art supplies to calculators, binders, school backpacks, lunch boxes and more, we’ve got what your students need to succeed.

Take a seat

Whether you’re working from home or outfitting a space for gaming, your comfort is dependent on finding the best chair. At Staples, we provide a broad range of office chairs and seating, so you can find the right fit for you. Select from multifunctional task chairs, computer & desk chairs, drafting stools and more. If you will be using your new chair for multiple hours a day, make sure to get an ergonomic office chair to prevent unnecessary strain.

Comfort, all day long

Office furniture that is the proper size and height makes a big difference. When shopping for chairs, the height of the seat should be adjustable so that the user’s feet can sit flat on the floor with their knees at right angles. Likewise, the accompanying office desk should be at a height where the users’ elbows can sit comfortably at right angles at their sides while typing or writing. Browse our selection to find the combination that’s right for you. If size if a concern, check out our big & tall chairs which can support up to 500lbs.

Game on

If you’re a gamer, you know that a single gaming session can last all day or night. For the best and most comfortable gaming setup, Staples has gaming chairs in colors and styles for everyone. Make sure to match your new chair to an ergonomic gaming desk, the perfect complement for the high-tech gaming computer and accessories you’ve invested in.

Tech accessories for work or play

Whether you’re shopping for tech essentials for school, work or anywhere in between, Staples has all the latest products to keep you up to date. Browse our selection of laptops and Chromebooks to find the perfect on-the-go computer for schoolwork, homework, hybrid work, and play. If you’re a gamer, streamer, or work with large files, a gaming laptop or desktop PC might be the best option for you. With installed RAM up to 64GB and up to 2TB SSD, gaming laptops can handle everything from the newest online games to editing audio, films and more. Need more file storage? Increase capacity with an external hard drive.

Shop NXT Technologies wide assortment of tech accessories including chargers, power banks, headsets and more. Staples range of audio accessories can help you create the best audio experience. From headsets for focused work time to headphones and Bluetooth speakers for music and entertainment, find the latest audio technology at Staples.

Show seasonal allergies who’s boss

If you suffer from seasonal allergies, now is when they are at their worst. Stock up on allergy season’s most important products to keep your home, classroom, and office allergen-free. Start with an air purifier to strip the air of allergens like pollen and pet dander and replace existing air filters for improved air quality. Frequently dust, wipe down hard surfaces, and vacuum carpets and furniture to help eliminate pollen tracked in from outside and dander left behind by pets. When leaving the house, check the pollen count and bring a face mask to help filter the air you breath outside.

No matter what you do, it’s unlikely that the symptoms of seasonal allergies can be avoided entirely. Make sure to have over-the-counter cold and allergy medications on hand to battle symptoms, and stock up on facial tissues so you’ll always have one available when you need them.

Spring (Cleaning) is in the air

Spring cleaning and decluttering is a tradition meant to refresh our spaces for the year ahead. Staples has everything you need to clear out the clutter, store and organize your belongings, and all the right cleaning supplies.

Clear out the clutter

Start by preparing a checklist and make sure you have all the necessary supplies. Use storage bins and a label maker to make sorting and organizing easier. Prepare extra boxes for donations and trash bags for the things you no longer need. Look for decorative boxes & baskets that will compliment your home’s décor and use them to organize. You can also use closet organizers and storage drawers anywhere they are needed.

Start with the basics

An all-purpose cleaner, cleaning brush and microfiber cloths will clean most surfaces. Use a duster to remove unwanted dirt and furniture polish to revitalize wood surfaces. Upgrade your broom, dustpan, wet mop, and vacuum to make cleaning any type of flooring a breeze.

The nitty gritty

Spring cleaning doesn’t stop there. There’s so much you can do to reset your home:

  • Improve air quality and eliminate pollen and pet dander with a new air purifier and an air freshener with a scent you love.
  • On a sunny day, take the opportunity to clean your windows – you’ll need glass cleaner, a bucket, a squeegee, and paper towels.
  • Have a step stool or ladder on hand to access hard-to-reach places like the tops of cabinets and overhead lighting.
  • Replace broken light bulbs and check the batteries in your smoke detectors.
  • Use drain cleaner to clear up sink and bathtub drains.

Up your printing game with a Supertank Printer

Looking for a printer with more print capacity that’s better for the environment and your wallet? Shop Staples selection of Supertank Printers for all the benefits of an inkjet printer with the convenience and savings of replacement ink bottles that last longer and cost less per page than standard inkjet printer cartridges.

Find a Supertank printer from your favorite top printer brand including:

  • HP Smart Tank & Neverstop Printers
  • Brother INKVestment Tank Printers
  • Canon MegaTank Printers
  • Epson EcoTank Printers

And don’t forget to browse Staples Ink and Toner Finder to find the right replacement ink for your new printer. No matter what printer you have, enter the brand, cartridge or printer model into the easy-to-use Ink and Toner Finder, and browse for compatible ink.

Best Corsair CPU coolers in 2023

Keeping your processor cool during use is incredibly important. These components are capable of producing a lot of waste heat that needs to be quickly removed so they can continue operating at rated speeds. Corsair is a popular PC brand that makes some of the best coolers in the business. We’ve rounded up the very best Corsair CPU coolers for your PC right here.

Our favorite Corsair CPU coolers in 2023

Source: Corsair

Corsair iCUE h250i ELITE LCD XT

Best Overall

Our favorite Corsair CPU cooler.

The Corsair iCUE h250i ELITE LCD XT is a 360mm all-in-one (AIO) CPU cooler with impressive thermal performance and plenty of features. If you have the available budget to spare, this will easily cool even an overclocked Intel Core i9 or AMD Ryzne 9 CPU.


  • Excellent cooling performance
  • Stunning LCD panel
  • Powerful 120mm fans


  • Expensive

$290 at Amazon

$300 at Best Buy

$290 at Newegg

Most people will require nothing more than a 240mm AIO as we recommend below, but the Corsair iCUE h250i ELITE LCD XT is our favorite CPU cooler from the company. It offers impressive thermal performance with a 320mm radiator and three new Corsair fans for maximum airflow. The three blowers have RGB lighting and the CPU block has an impressive LCD panel for displaying just about anything you’d desire. Just keep an eye on that price tag.

If you’re building your dream PC and want one of the best AIO coolers around, look no further than this one from Corsair. It’ll improve the aesthetics of your PC as well as keep everything cool.

Source: Corsair


Best Compact

For those with more compact PC cases.

If you need a good thermal performance in a reasonably compact package, you’ll want to consider the Corsair iCUE h200i ELITE CAPELLIX XT. We don’t recommend AIO coolers with a 120mm radiator so this is as compact as we’d go.


  • Good thermal performance
  • May not be enough for overclocking


  • Pricey

$180 at Amazon

$180 at Newegg

$180 at Best Buy

We’d never recommend an AIO cooler with a 120mm or 140mm radiator. It’s just not worth it compared to air coolers. 240mm radiators are perfectly fine for a PC build, however, making the Corsair iCUE h200i ELITE CAPELLIX XT a worthwhile consideration if you’re limited by the PC case. Not every chassis can hold a 360mm radiator, which is where this cooler comes into play. It has the same high-quality Corsair fans you’d find in larger coolers, as well as a bright CPU block with all the RGB lighting in the world, but at a more reasonable price.

Because you’re only using two 120mm fans and have a smaller surface area than a 360mm radiator, we’d recommend against overclocking an Intel Core i9 or AMD Ryzen 9 CPU with this AIO. Everything else about this cooler is amazing, aside from it being a little pricey.

Source: Corsair

Corsair iCUE h250i RGB ELITE

Best Value

If you want the most bang for your buck.

Not everyone needs RGB fans and an LCD for showing GIFs and other data. This is where the Corsair iCUE h250i RGB ELITE comes into play. There are a few lights on the CPU block, but that’s about it. This thing focuses on being great at cooling your CPU.


  • Great value
  • Impressive thermal performance


  • No RGB fans
  • Can get loud

$189 at Amazon

$180 at Newegg

Should you want the very best bang for your buck with Corsair’s catalog of AIO coolers, we’d recommend the Corsair iCUE h250i RGB ELITE. It has minimal RGB lighting, no LCD panel, standard Corsair fans, and the same excellent performance you’d expect from an AIO cooler with a 360mm radiator. Because you cannot alter what’s displayed on the CPU block, and there’s very minimal RGB lighting elsewhere, Corsair was able to keep the price low, allowing those on tighter budgets access to higher-tier cooling solutions.

Whether you’re rocking an Intel Core i9-13900K or AMD Ryen 9 7950X, the iCUE h250i RGB ELITE will be able to tame the CPU even under heavy loads. Because of the three fans, you may notice some additional noise at higher RPM speeds, but that’s the nature of the beast when you’re attempting to extract a lot of heat waste for a single location.

Source: Corsair

Corsair iCUE h270i Elite LCD XT

Best Performance

A beastly CPU cooler for overclocking.

Bigger usually means better, which is why the Corsair iCUE h270i Elite LCD XT takes our spot for the best-performing AIO cooler from Corsair. It has a 420mm radiator with three 140mm fans for excellent thermal performance.


  • The best cooling performance
  • Massive 420mm radiator


  • Can be too big for many PC cases
  • Expensive

$390 at Amazon

$310 at Newegg

This is it, the big one. The Corsair iCUE h270i Elite LCD XT is the largest AIO cooler the company sells and it likely won’t fit inside your PC case, unless you’re using a full-tower chassis. We’ve compiled a list of the best full-tower PC cases if you want to go all-out with such a cooler. The radiator comes in at a whopping 420mm in length, which is far greater than the 360mm our top Corsair CPU cooler has. So long as you can fit this thing inside your PC, you’re going to have a great time.

It’s expensive, but for the money, you’re getting three powerful 140mm fans, a high-quality water block pump, and some tasteful RGB lighting effects. Install Corsair’s iCUE software and you’ll have a cooler that can not only cool the best consumer-grade processor but also look the part.

Source: Corsair

Corsair Hydro X Series iCUE Xh405i RGB PRO Custom Cooling Kit

Best DIY

Want to build your own CPU open-loop cooler? This kit is for you.

The Corsair Hydro X Series iCUE Xh405i RGB PRO is a custom water-cooling kit, which means Corsair provides everything in a box and you need to fix and connect everything together. This kit includes a reservoir, fans, a radiator, a pump, fluid, fittings, and some tools to make it all work.


  • Build your own open-loop water cooling
  • Contains everything you need


  • Expensive

$550 at Amazon

$550 at Newegg

If you’d like to build your own open-loop water-cooling solution for your PC but don’t want the hassle of picking all the parts, Corsair has a kit available that has everything you need to get started. The Corsair Hydro X Series iCUE Xh405i RGB PRO sounds like a mouthful and it most certainly is. But this fancy kit is also incredibly capable once it’s all installed and up and running. Inside the packaging are a 360mm radiator, three RGB Corsair fans, a pump/reservoir combo unit, a CPU block, rubes, fittings, and all the necessary tools.

This is essentially a barebones kit for building your own loops, including the means to cut the acrylic tubing. The only thing missing is a heat gun to warm up the tubes for bending, which will need to be bought separately. It’s expensive, but custom water-cooling projects such as this typically cost far more than an AIO or air cooler. What you get in return is impressive thermal performance. The three 120mm Corsair fans will be able to blow plenty of cool air through the large radiator, and you’ll have more than enough fluid to soak up all that processor waste heat.

Source: Corsair

Corsair XTM50

Best Thermal Paste

For the times when you’re removing the CPU cooler.

The Corsair XTM50 is the easiest of them all when it comes to installation. You get a CPU stencil and a spreader included in the box, making it easier for you to install the paste.


  • Fantastic thermal performance
  • Excellent for overclocking


  • Pricey

$15 at Amazon

$15 at Newegg

Thermal paste is incredibly important and can be the difference between excellent performance and impressive thermal throttling. It’s what plugs any gaps between the integrated heat spreader (IHS) on the processor and the plate on the cooler, be it a block or heatsink. The IHS transfers heat through the cooler using contact, so the more direct contact we have, the better the thermal transfer will be. Regardless of how advanced manufacturing has progressed, there will be defects in either the IHS or the cooler (or both).

There will be cuts, grooves, or other imperfections on a microscopic level that affect the process of transferring heat efficiently. This is where thermal paste comes into play. It acts as a transfer agent between the two metal surfaces, not only ensuring there’s an even contact across the processor, but the paste will also help improve the thermal conductivity of the cooler. Most CPU coolers (including those we recommend in this guide) will come with thermal paste already applied, but it’s always worth having a spare available.

Choosing the best CPU cooler

Our top recommendation for the best Corsair CPU cooler would be the Corsair iCUE h250i ELITE LCD XT. This impressive 360mm radiator-sporting package offers impressive thermal performance at a reasonable price. It has all the RGB lighting you could ever ask for and even has a fancy high-quality LCD panel on the CPU block that can be used to show just about anything. If you want not only the best cooling performance but also a solution that looks good and will enhance your PC build, this would be our top pick.

Other recommendations from Corsair are worth considering here. The Corsair iCUE h200i ELITE CAPELLIX XT is ideal for more compact PC builds where space is limited. It would fit inside smaller form factor cases without an issue, providing a much-needed uplift in thermal capacity. The Corsair Hydro X Series iCUE Xh405i RGB PRO Custom Cooling Kit is just awesome if you want to go it alone and create your very own open-loop CPU water cooling solution.

Picking the right CPU cooler depends largely on the processor you intend to use it to … well, cool. We’ve rounded up the very best CPUs (and most heat-producing) from AMD and Intel that will not only blow your existing benchmark scores out of the water but will also slash your energy bills, as you no longer require central heating during the winter months. Corsair found itself in our best AIO coolers collection and for good reason!

Source: Corsair

Corsair iCUE h250i ELITE LCD XT

Best Overall

Our favorite Corsair CPU cooler.

The Corsair iCUE h250i ELITE LCD XT is a 360mm all-in-one (AIO) CPU cooler with impressive thermal performance and plenty of features. If you have the available budget to spare, this will easily cool even an overclocked Intel Core i9 or AMD Ryzne 9 CPU.

$290 at Amazon

$300 at Best Buy

$290 at Newegg

The most overclocked processors that are remembered for a long time / Habr

Fans have been striving to make the most of silicon’s resources since the advent of microprocessors. In the early days, overclocking was done by soldering and replacing crystal clocks, but this practice quickly evolved into changing system bus speeds with DIP switches and motherboard jumpers.

Internal clock frequency multipliers appeared, but they were soon blocked, because unscrupulous sellers removed the official nominal frequencies and indicated their own, higher parameters. For most users, system buses and dividers have become the most important overclocking option, and the most die-hard fans have physically changed the electrical specifications by hardware modding the equipment.

Today we are back to internal clock multipliers. System bus speeds are increasingly controlled to maintain system stability, which again limited the scope for the competitive nature of overclocking.

Throughout the history of personal computers, there have been several processors that have become legendary for their ability to overclock. In this article we will talk about them.

Intel Pentium MMX 166

Release date: January 8, 1997

Standard clock: 166 MHz

Overclock: 207 – 266 MHz (~54%)

90 The 004 Pentium MMX came at a time when the shady dealings of retailers flourished. , to which x86 processor manufacturers responded by blocking the upper limit of multipliers. Therefore, many MMXs used overclocking to increase the bus frequency. Unlocked MMX processors provided more options for overclockers, and the most important among them was the MMX 233, although its price (59$4) was too much for many.

A better deal at $407 was the MMX 166, and when installed on a motherboard with a 430TX chipset that had a standard 75 MHz bus speed, you could reach 225 or 266 MHz (multiplier of 3 or 3.5). MMX 166 processors with a locked multiplier needed to change the jumper to switch to 83 MHz (2.5 * 83 = 207 MHz) (if possible) to exceed the 200 MHz threshold, however, stability and heating at this bus speed were much more problematic, as well as the search for high-quality EDO/SDRAM RAM, necessary to work with this frequency.

Intel 486DX2-40

Release date: March 1992

Standard clock: 40 MHz and 50 MHz

Times rut: 66 MHz (~65%)

In P24 DX2 processors 486 introduced a processor clock multiplier that doubled the system bus speed, and the system bus frequency itself could be adjusted using jumpers or DIP switches on the motherboard. Initially, the line included models at 20, 25 and 33 MHz (later it was supplemented by models at 40 and 50 MHz). Users got the opportunity to overclock, which does not require soldering and replacing the crystal oscillator.

You could also achieve DX2-66 ($799) performance by purchasing a $400 486DX2-40 and increasing its standard bus speed from 20 MHz to 33 MHz.

Due to stability issues and the VLB slot, at bus speeds above 33 MHz, overclocking capability decreased as the base frequency increased; to the point that many Intel DX2-66s did not overclock at all, and some were often limited to only 80 megahertz (2 x 40 MHz).

Intel Celeron 300A

Release date: August 24, 1998

Standard clock: 300 MHz

Overclocking: 375 – 504 MHz (~55%)

Overclocking is believed to have gained immense popularity in the late 90s thanks to the ease of overclocking the legendary Celeron 300A. To overclock it by 50% to 450 MHz, it was enough just to change the bus speed from the nominal 66 MHz to 100 MHz. While some motherboards topped out at 83.3 MHz, limiting overclocking to 375 MHz, boards with 103 MHz system bus (FSB) support allowed 464 MHz.

The highest quality chips could operate at 112 MHz FSB when the voltage was increased, providing a processor frequency of 504 MHz. Notably, the 300A could typically reach 450MHz without additional voltage requirements, at the nominal 2.0V. The on-chip L2 cache also helped the chip’s performance, and at $149 it was especially handy for system builders.

AMD Athlon 700 (Thunderbird) / Duron 600 (Spitfire)

Release date: July 5, 2000 (Athlon 700) / June 19, 2000 (Duron 600)

Standard clock: 700 MHz/600 MHz

Overclock: 770 – 900 MHz (~12%) / 800 – 1000MHz (~59%)

The AMD Thunderbird “pencil” mod has become an overclocker’s dream come true. AMD has locked down the voltage and multipliers of the K7 line in an attempt to prevent fraudulent relabeling of processors. Overclockers quickly figured out that the key to unlocking performance was the board’s jumpers built into the case.

Initially, the combination of connection jumpers in blocks L3, L4 and L6 allowed shorting L1 connections to unlock the multiplier. It was also possible to close the connections of the L7 block to change the core voltage, and a soft graphite pencil or pen that applied conductive tracks was enough to carry out this process.

Because the AMD EV6 FSB was sensitive to overclocking, multiplier overclocking was only available in the Duron line due to its lower core voltage (1.5V instead of 1.7V/1.75V), which allowed for a larger relative boost to max. allowable 1.85 V.

At only $112, the Duron 600 could easily match the performance of a processor many times its price in a matter of minutes.

Intel Core 2 Quad Q6600 G0 Revision

Release date: January 8, 2007 (B0 revision) / July 22, 2007 (G0 revision)

Standard clock speed: 9001 7 2. 4 GHz

Overclocking : 3.4 – 3.6 GHz (~46%)

Core 2 Quad Q6600 achieved an enviable life and performance record, becoming the de facto choice for overclockers looking to purchase a budget quad-core CPU. Since January 2007, its original price ($851) has fallen rapidly, reaching $530 in May; further price restructuring in July coincided with the release of version G0. At $266, the 2.4GHz quad-core chip was as costly as the new dual-core 3GHz E6850, which could easily outperform the Q6600 of the earlier B3.

The new version of G0 provided slightly lower power consumption, resulting in improved overclocking capabilities. Thanks to this, many users were able to achieve stable 3.4 – 3.6 GHz almost effortlessly. The advent of the affordable Intel P35 platform and the further reduction in the price of the Q6600 throughout 2008 from $224 (in April) to $183 (in October) provided the possibility of reliable overclocking within 50% (a 9x multiplier and a 400 MHz system bus gave 3. 6 GHz ) at a reasonable cost. This model remained very competitive long after many modern processors fell out of favor.

Intel Pentium III 500E

Release date: October 25, 1999

Standard clock speed: 500 MHz

Overclocking: 667 – 775 MHz (~50%)

Coppermine overclocking reasons The Pentium III 500E and 550E had processor binning by Intel “overstock”, a low system bus frequency (100 MHz) and an integrated L2 cache. Budget pricing ($239) and the ability to use older Slot 1 motherboards with Socket 370 to Slot 1 adapters provided remarkable performance at a modest cost.

500E could easily work at 667 MHz after selecting a system bus frequency of 133 MHz in the BIOS or after insulating the A14 contact of the Slocket adapter with electrical tape or varnish. On more expensive boards, it was possible to reach 750 MHz (FSB 150 MHz) and higher, getting the same performance as the $850 Pentium III 800.

However, there were some peculiarities during overclocking, for example, motherboards had to support AGP and PCI clock dividers (respectively, 1:2 and 1:4) to ensure the stability of installed components and fast PC133 RAM.

AMD Athlon XP-M 2500+ (Barton Mainstream 45W TDP)

Release Date: March 12, 2003

Standard Clock: 1.87 GHz 9000 3

Acceleration: 2.4 — 2.7 GHz (~32%)

In early 2004, the overclocking community took notice of the fact that Barton mobile processors had an unlocked clock multiplier; in addition, they are designed to operate at reduced voltage (1.45 V compared to desktop 1.65 V). These factors often provided phenomenal overclocking capabilities that were lacking in desktop models.

When the overclocking potential of this chip became known to the general public, its price rose from the original $75 by 30% in a matter of weeks. On a reliable nForce2 motherboard with good cooling, when the voltage was increased to 1. 8 V and higher, it was often possible to achieve overclocking up to 30-40%. While such impressive growth didn’t close the performance gap with the new Athlon 64s, the Athlon XP-M 2500+ still didn’t cost $200 to $400.

AMD Opteron 144 / 146 (K8 Venus)

Release Date: August 2, 2005

Standard Clock: 1.8GHz / 2.0GHz

Overclocking: 2.5 — 3.0 GHz (~63%)

Using the same silicon as San Diego’s Athlon 64 processors, the $125 and $183 Opterons for Socket 939 had a significant price advantage over the similarly-specified Athlon 64 3700+ ($329) and more. fared better against the $1,000 FX-57.

As with all CPUs locked from boost, the Opteron’s ability to overclock was directly related to the power of the chosen motherboard. Overclocked Opteron server chip binning combined with a solid overclocking board such as the nForce4 chipset and HyperTransport clocks reaching (and exceeding) 300MT/s allowed overclocking rarely achieved by enterprise-class processors.

While all Opteron models had approximately the same overclocking ceiling, the cheapest $144 chips were quickly sold out in many countries.

Intel Core i7 2600K / Core i5 2500K

Release date: January 9, 2011

Standard clock: 3.4GHz (Turbo 3.8GHz) / 3, 3 GHz (Turbo 3, 7 GHz)

Overclocking: 4.6 – 5.0 GHz (~49%)

Sandy Bridge, most users considered this the end of overclocking for Intel platforms. However, in fact, the 2500K and 2600K models turned out to be ideal for overclocking, allowing you to achieve stable overclocking by 30-50% with minimal time and improved cooling.

The popularity of the 2600K was such that overclocking results for this processor in 2011 accounted for 28% of all published on the HWBot website, and in 2012 they outnumbered its descendant, the 3770K. With its low price (only $216) plus good air or water cooling options, the Intel 2500K has become the de facto standard for evaluating all consumer-grade CPUs.

Intel Core i7 920

Release date: November 17, 2008

Standard clock: 2.67 GHz (Turbo 2.93 GHz)

Overclock: 3.5 – 4.0 GHz in C0 version, 3.8 – 4.2 GHz in D0 versions (~58%)

The new Nehalem architecture and X58 platform seemed attractive enough to attract many users of long-lived Core 2 LGA 775 systems. was still less relevant than the i7 920.

The first Bloomfield C0 processors required high voltages above 3.6 GHz, and the next D0 revision often had the ability to maintain the 1.26 V nominal voltage up to 4 GHz and reach an absolute overclocking ceiling of almost 4.5 GHz if the user tried increasing the voltage to 1.5 V.

The popularity of the 920 was (and still is) such that its overclocking reports account for a third of the total number of LGA 1366 results.

Intel Pentium 4 1.6A / Celeron 2.0 (Northwood)

Release date: January 7, 2002 (Pentium 4) / September 18, 2002 (Celeron 2. 0)

Standard clock: 1.6 GHz / 2.0 GHz

Acceleration: 2 .4 – 2.8 GHz (~48%) / 2.66 – 3 GHz (~46%)

The arrival of the Northwood core was a welcome development after the disappointing Williamette, whose high voltage and heat dissipation prevented massive overclocking. While the overclocked P4s were of little value compared to the XP, the $125 1.6A model turned a performance deficit into a benefit with a low base system bus frequency (100MHz) that could easily be bumped up to 150MHz to get a speed of 2. 4 GHz.

The 20x Celeron overclocked was still better, although performance was severely limited by the modest 128 KB L2 cache. Those looking for more overclocking needed to raise the voltage above 1.6V either through the BIOS or with a wired mod (by connecting the CPU pins to raise the Vcore limit). The latter method was the main cause of the phenomenon called S.N.D.S. (Sudden Northwood Death Syndrome, Northwood Sudden Death Syndrome), better known as electrotransfer.

This, and the fact that the 1.6A hurt sales of Intel’s expensive models, led the company to stop selling the 1.6A just six months after it was released in January 2002.

Intel Xeon LV 1.6 D1 revision (Prestonia)

Release date: September 2003

Standard clock: 1.6 GHz

900 16 Overclocking: 2.6 – 3.2 GHz (~63%)

Most often, overclocking is associated with gaming systems, but for more than a decade, dual-processor overclocking has been very popular. Long before the QX9The 775 and the Intel Skulltrail board became synonymous with performance, with many fans hunting for the budget Xeon LV 1.6.

The Prestonia core was essentially a Pentium 4 Northwood processor that added SMP (symmetric multiprocessing) and HyperThreading as standard features. Although the $200 1.6GHz Xeon drew a promising 1.274V, overclockers usually couldn’t take advantage of the voltage boost option, since most boards had it blocked. However, by simply increasing the frequency of the system bus, 2.6 GHz could be obtained.

If the user was more adventurous, he could use three hardware mods and get overclocked to 100% (or even more!): U-Wire mod, which connected two (1.5 V) or three (1.6 C) a set of socket pins, a BSEL mod that isolates or breaks the CPU pins, while raising the FSB limit to 200 MHz, or a vDIMM mod that boosts the RAM voltage.

Those willing to push the limits of technology were rewarded with 3.2 GHz dual processor performance for about $700 (total cost of processors, coolers, board, and RAM).

AMD Athlon XP 1700+ (Thoroughbred-B)

Release Date: June 10, 2002

Standard Clock: 1.46 GHz

Overclock: 2.2 – 2.5 GHz (~44%)

The first Thoroughbred-A was almost the previous Palomino with a reduced die size and was rather disappointing as a finished product. Released in June 2002, AMD Thoroughbred-B was more adapted to the 130nm process, which resulted in higher core frequencies as well as increased efficiency, as version B showed remarkable overclocking capabilities with little or no boost.

Combined with a powerful motherboard based on the nForce2 chipset, the $60 XP 1700+ processor at standard voltage was able to achieve core speeds of almost 2 GHz. With an nF2 board capable of pushing the system bus above 200 MHz, it was possible to achieve a stable overclock of 40% at a moderate 1.7 V, which exceeded the performance of the $397 flagship AMD Athlon XP 2800+ and posed a threat to the Intel Pentium 4.

Intel Pentium D 820 / D 805

Release date: May 26, 2005 (D 820) / December 2005 (D 805)

Standard clock: 2.8 GHz / 2.66 GHz

Overclocking: 9002 6 3.5 – 4, 2 GHz (~26%)

The Pentium D 820 turned out to be a rather outstanding anomaly – two single cores in a multi-chip module package at a much lower price than the cheapest dual-core AMD Athlon 64 X2 ($241), even cheaper by $30, than the single core Athlon 64 3500+. The Pentium D 820 provided moderate performance that was by no means competitive with a dual Athlon, but had decent overclocking potential thanks to reasonable voltages and a good air or water cooling system.

The introduction of the Intel D 805 ($129) further drew the attention of budget overclockers to the hot Netburst processor. The decrease in the nominal system bus frequency from 200 to 133 MHz was compensated by the D 805 processor’s 20x multiplier, which kept overclocking interesting. For those on a budget, the D 805, when paired with a 945P board and appropriate RAM, provided the performance available in $500 processor builds.

Intel Pentium Dual Core E2140 / E2160

Release date: June 3, 2007

Standard clock: 1.6 GHz (E2140) / 1.8 GHz (E2160)

Overclocking: 900 17 2.7 – 3.2 GHz (~89%) / 2.9 – 3.5 GHz (~92%)

Intel’s E2000 series was both the death of the last surviving Pentium D with NetBurst and AMD’s dominance in the budget market. Intel has halved the L2 cache of the E4000 series and also slacked off the performance of the 200 MHz FSB (800 FSB). However, at the same time, Intel did not get rid of the overclocking capabilities of the Conroe processor.

At standard voltages and a conventional cooler, it was possible to achieve a 50% increase in clock speed by simply raising the 300 MHz bus speed, either on an inexpensive board with an Intel P965/P35, or on a board with an Nvidia 650i SLI chipset, which, due to the fact that it did not rely on on memory frequency dividers, provided more customization options.

A hand-bought air cooler, voltage regulation and a bit of luck in the silicon lottery were enough to overclock the processors by almost 100%, providing performance on par with the E6700 for a fraction of the price.

AMD Phenom II X2 550 Black Edition (Callisto) / X4 955 Black Edition (Deneb)


Standard clock speed: 3.1 GHz / 3.2 GHz

Overclocking: 3.7 – 3.9 GHz (~22%)

Release of the new version of the AMD K10.5 architecture in the first months of 2009 has become a symbol of the company’s strength in the niche of budget products. The arrival of Black Edition processors has also added a nice touch in the form of an unlocked multiplier for easier overclocking.

While the overall clock speed increase was not particularly impressive by historical standards, it went hand in hand with a real performance boost that lifted the processor out of the Core 2 Quad shadow. At $100, the 550 Black Edition was a huge value if it could unlock two disabled cores (unlocking the fourth core would be the X3 720 BE’s biggest selling point), and the $245 955 BE’s raw performance ensured that its potential could only be surpassed by a more expensive platform. X58.

Intel Core 2 Duo E6600 (Conroe)

Release Date: Jul 27, 2006

Standard Clock: 2.4 GHz

900 16 Overclock: 3.0 – 4.0 GHz (~45%)

At the time of release in July 2006, Intel Conroe focused on the unlocked X6800 multiplier, but the cheapest full-featured chip (4 MB L2 cache) played the most important role. At $316, the chip was $200 cheaper than the next highest performing chip (E6700) and delivered results that rivaled the most powerful AMD Athlon 64.

With standard cooling and voltage, the E6600 could be expected to reach 2.7-3 GHz. When buying a more powerful used cooler, motherboard stability was often the limiting factor, because system bus speeds exceeded 400 MHz and approached 450 MHz. The overclocking potential was so great that the prices of the X6800 ($999) and Athlon 64 FX-62 ($799) seemed obviously ridiculous when compared to the price and performance of the E6600.

Intel Core 2 Duo E8400 E0 Revision (Wolfdale-6M)

Release Date: January 7, 2008 (C0 Revision) / July 18, 2008 (E0 Revision)

Standard Clock Speed: 90 017 3.0GHz

Overclocked: 4.0 – 4.5 GHz (~41%)

Ever since the Wolfdale E8400’s C0 release in January 2008, it has immediately established itself as an affordable processor with performance upgrades. Five months later, the E0 version provided much more advanced voltage requirements. Some E8400s in the C0 version were capable of operating at 4 GHz, but in the new version, the same frequency could be achieved with standard voltage, parameters and a cooler.

By the time the E0 was released, OEM kit prices had dropped to $149, and various feature boards on the P45 and X48 were capable of supporting 500 MHz bus speeds (2000 MHz FSB). The stability of these systems at 4 GHz and above is a testament to the quality of both the architecture and the chipsets.

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Which is better than Intel and AMD in 2021: processor comparison

Whether you choose a processor for a simple office PC, a gaming PC or a powerful workstation, you have only two options – AMD or Intel. The confrontation between these giants gave rise to an almost religious worship of one of the camps and an irreconcilable war of fans and eternal disputes about which is better – AMD or Intel.

But this article is for those who do not consider themselves to be such fans, those who, when choosing a processor, are guided by common sense and the specific tasks facing it. After all, whatever you say, but each chipmaker has its own strengths and weaknesses. And today we will talk not so much about which of them is better, but about who is in the lead in certain use cases. In other words, we will analyze the strengths and weaknesses of Intel and AMD processors.

Gaming performance

Most independent tests comparing Intel and AMD processors favor the latter. Intel actually leads in all significant price ranges. This fully applies to the latest Intel Alder Lake models, which confidently outperform the AMD Ryzen 5000 processors on the Zen 3 microarchitecture. Moreover, the Intel Core i9-12900K actually became the fastest gaming processor in the world, but its cost is so high that it is much more The Core i7-12700K is considered an attractive choice for the role of the best gaming processor – it is only slightly slower than the Core i9-12900K, but costs much less. Well, the Core i5-12600K offers the best price / performance ratio that is currently on the market. AMD Ryzen 5 or Intel Core i5 – in the current generations of processors of the two giants, the confrontation between these processors ends in favor of the latter.

But even here everything is not so simple. Firstly, if your system does not have a discrete graphics card, and its purchase is not yet expected, then you have a direct road to the AMD camp. The company’s processors use the best integrated graphics that have no analogues in the market.

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Secondly, you can unlock the full potential of top-end Intel processors only by using them in a company with equally powerful components, which means that the cost of such an assembly will be simply enormous. For example, the same Intel Core i9The -12900K can only really shine when paired with a fast monitor and when playing in Full HD resolution. If you prefer 2K or 4K gaming, then the bottleneck of the system will be the video card, which will have the lion’s share of the load.

The vast majority of gamers do not need such powerful processors, and the best choice for them will be the Core i5-12600K – just because of that excellent price-performance ratio. If you plan to use integrated graphics, then look towards the AMD Ryzen 7 5700G.

Workload performance

Until recently, AMD processors were considered the undisputed leaders in the AMD vs Intel battle in workload use cases. But with the release of Intel Alder Lake, the blues managed to reverse the sad situation for the company, and the result of the Intel vs AMD confrontation in 2021 is completely different. The new Intel processors offer an excellent combination of price and features in a wide range of workloads. While AMD’s most powerful processors still lead the way in absolute performance in multi-threaded scenarios and content creation, these wins come at the expense of more cores and threads, larger caches and, as a result, a very high price.

In many ways, the success of Intel Alder Lake is due to the use of two types of cores in processors. Fast P-cores are indispensable when it comes to single-threaded workloads, while energy-efficient E-cores increase processor performance in multi-threaded operations and background work, which is especially effective for content creation.

If you need the most productive processor – choose AMD, if the best in terms of price and performance – Intel.

Power Efficiency and Thermal Dissipation

The power consumption of processors is highly dependent on the microarchitecture and process technology used in them, and thermal dissipation (TDP) is essentially determined by the power consumption of the processor. AMD’s 7nm Ryzen 5000s are the most power efficient desktop processors we’ve seen, leaving 11th Gen Intel Core models at bay. But independent tests have shown Intel’s huge success in this direction. The company has been able to keep the power consumption of the new processors to an acceptable level, and Alder Lake has noticeably better power efficiency compared to the Rocket Lake generation.

If you want the most energy efficient processors, choose AMD.


When it comes to overclocking, the undisputed leader is Intel, whose processors offer the best overclocking potential. In other words, Intel processors allow you to get more performance during overclocking compared to their speed at stock frequencies.

Another issue is that the company’s policy remains very strict. For maximum efficiency, you will have to spend money on expensive unlocked K-series processors, buy a very expensive Z-based motherboard and a powerful cooling system.

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AMD’s approach in this regard looks as liberal as possible. The company’s processors have a much lower overclocking potential, but they do not impose such stringent requirements on hardware. There is no need to buy any special, more expensive series of processors. Moreover, the proprietary Precision Boost Overdrive feature allows you to overclock your AMD processor in one click, making life as easy as possible for overclockers.

If you want a processor with the best overclocking potential, buy Intel, but be prepared to pay a lot of money for this privilege. For the simplest and easiest overclocking for the wallet, take AMD, but don’t expect any miracles.


AMD was once the first to offer PCIe 4.0 support in its processors, which became especially important in light of the appearance of the first high-speed SSDs with this interface. The fact that even 10th generation Intel Core processors could not work with PCIe 4.0 SSDs largely limited their owners’ access to modern technologies.

But now the situation has changed exactly the opposite. It was Intel processors that were the first to receive support for PCIe 5.0 and the latest DDR5 RAM. And against this background, AMD already looks outdated with its PCIe 4.0 and DDR4. Of course, DDR5 greatly increases the cost of motherboards, and the advantages of this RAM are not yet so obvious, but in addition to DDR5, Alder Lake also supports DDR4, which is familiar to many.

At the same time, AMD still has a modern 7nm process technology, but Intel has been able to do a lot in this direction, and its latest 12th generation Core processors are far ahead of their predecessors in most parameters. First of all, due to the use of the updated architecture, which we talked about a little higher.

It’s not easy to choose a winner in this category. On the one hand, a more modern technical process still gives AMD some advantage over Intel, but it is not so great. On the other hand, PCIe 5.0 and DDR5 make Intel processors more attractive, but the price of this progress still bites a lot.


Pricing is always the cornerstone of any processor choice. And in recent years, we have become accustomed to the fact that it is simply impossible to oppose AMD here. The company’s processors were distinguished by an affordable price tag, almost all of them were overclockable and were offered with good coolers complete with free software and the Precision Boost Overdrive function.

Actually, all this remained unchanged. But Alder Lake-S has reduced AMD’s advantage to nothing, and now, in order to maintain its position, the company will have to reduce the cost of Ryzen 5000-series processors.