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Yellowstone National Park (U.

S. National Park Service)

 

 

Nine webcams—one live-streaming and eight static—provide views of the current conditions around the North Entrance and Mammoth Hot Springs, Mount Washburn, the West Entrance, and the Upper Geyser Basin. Unfamiliar with the park? Check on the location map to see where each webcam is located.

 

Old Faithful and the Upper Geyser Basin Live-stream Webcam

 

 

Thanks to volunteers, this webcam provides a streaming view of Old Faithful Geyser and other happenings around the Upper Geyser Basin—one of the most unique and dynamic places on earth with about 500 active geysers.

 

Old Faithful Geyser Prediction

Old Faithful Loading…

Notes on Predictions:

– Predictions are not available when the Old Faithful Visitor Education Center is closed, typically early November through mid-December and mid-March through mid-April.

– The last prediction made will remain up until a new prediction is available.

 

Guide for identifying features seen on the live-stream webcam.

NPS

 

Hydrothermal Features

Learn about hot springs, geysers, mudpots, and fumaroles.

Predict Old Faithful

Calculate your own prediction for Old Faithful’s next eruption.

Life in Extreme Heat

Hydrothermal features are habitats for microscopic organisms called thermophiles: “thermo” for heat, “phile” for lover.

 

Static Webcams

View current conditions at various locations around the park. Images from these webcams refresh roughly every 30 seconds.

 

North Entrance and Mammoth Hot Springs

 

Webcam

This webcam is on the park’s North Entrance at Gardiner, Montana. It shows current conditions at the entrance with Roosevelt Arch in the background.

The arch became known as Roosevelt Arch after President Theodore Roosevelt, who was vacationing in the park, spoke at the ceremony to lay the cornerstone in 1903. The arch is inscribed with a phrase from the legislation establishing Yellowstone National Park: “For the benefit and enjoyment of the people.”

View Webcam

 

Webcam

Morning views from this webcam are spectacular, especially during the winter when the morning sun touches Electric Peak.

Look for wildlife—elk, bison, and pronghorn can be seen grazing here. Occasionally you may see the top of oversize vehicles—RVs, tour buses, and delivery trucks—as they stop at the entrance station.

View Webcam

 

Webcam

Yellowstone is a place of change, and this view highlights a place where change is constant and evident—the travertine terraces of Mammoth Hot Springs. Terraces form when water rises through limestone, which then allows the water to carry high amounts of dissolved calcium carbonate. At the surface, carbon dioxide is released and the calcium carbonate is deposited, forming travertine, the chalky white rock of the terraces. In the foreground are the parade grounds for historic Fort Yellowstone—the focal point of daily life at the fort.

View Webcam

 

Mount Washburn

 

Webcam

At 10,219 feet, Mount Washburn towers above Dunraven Pass between Tower Junction and Canyon Village. A fire lookout stationed at the summit provides a popular destination for day hikers, as well as housing for an employee who watches for and tracks fires throughout the summer. This webcam is located inside the living quarters on the top floor and looks out to the northeast.

View Webcam

 

Webcam

This webcam atop Mount Washburn captures a south-facing view of the north-central part of the park. During summer, the webcam is often re-positioned by the fire lookout, and smoke from wildfires burning in the park may be visible.

View Webcam

 

West Entrance

 

Webcam

This webcam is on the West Entrance to the park at West Yellowstone, Montana. It shows current conditions at the entrance gate.

View Webcam

 

Webcam

This webcam is on the West Entrance to the park at West Yellowstone, Montana. It shows current conditions leading into the park.

View Webcam

 

Upper Geyser Basin

 

 

Webcam

Old Faithful, named by members of the 1870 Washburn Expedition, was once called “Eternity’s Timepiece” because of the regularity of its eruptions. Despite the myth, this geyser has never erupted at exact hourly intervals, nor is it the largest or most regular geyser in Yellowstone. It does, however, erupt more frequently than any other of the large geysers.

This view of the Old Faithful Geyser is captured from a webcam inside the visitor education center. At this location, time is not measured by a clock, but by this geyser. Visitors make decisions on when to eat, take a tour, interact with exhibits, or watch the visitor center film based on Old Faithful’s next eruption.

View Webcam

 

Yellowstone Lake

 

Webcam

The camera view is south-southeast over Yellowstone Lake from the cell phone tower near Fishing Bridge. Stevenson Island is visible within the lake on the right. The view extends down the Southeast Arm between the Promontory (low ridge rising from the lake) and the eastern shore. Above the shore, the acid-bleached Brimstone Basin remains white even when the snows have melted. The Absaroka Mountains in the background are composed of approximately 50-million-year old volcanic rocks that long precede the current volcanic activity at Yellowstone, which started about 2.2 million years ago.

View Webcam

 

Webcam Locations

Explore the map to discover the location of all the park’s webcams, and learn a little bit more about the cameras.

 

 

Webcam Questions and Answers

Live-stream Webcam

Where is the live-stream webcam located?

The live-stream webcam is attached to the northeast flagpole on the top of the Old Faithful Inn.

Why don’t you have a label that pops up to tell us the name of the geyser we’re watching?

That functionality is not available on this webcam.

Why isn’t the video image sharper?

Our bandwidth capacity on the available T1 line restricts the resolution we can stream.

How can the webcam see color at night?

The webcam has been set to operate in color mode as long as possible, even into low light conditions. When there is still enough light in the camera’s view, even at night, it will continue operating in color view. When the light drops too low, then the infrared cutoff filter automatically engages and the camera switches to black and white night mode.

Why do I sometimes get an image that is almost all grey with very little detail?

There are a couple possibilities here. On many winter days the steam from the geysers is held near the surface causing a foggy condition that can block the view of the camera completely at times. Sometimes there is a snow storm that makes everything white or grey.

Who is controlling the camera?

Park staff and volunteers control the camera.

Are you planning to install other live-stream webcams around the park?

Not at this time.

Static Webcams

The webcam keeps showing the same picture and time/date stamp over and over. Why?

This occurs when the park loses FTP Internet access to upload a picture to our server. Sometime it’s a webcam issue when it loses power from a power outage. Try clearing your browser’s cache and press the reload (refresh) button. If that does not work, please come back to visit later. Please know that when this incident happens or any webcam goes down, we work quickly to resolve the issue.

When I come back to the webcam after being away, it shows an old picture. Why?

Your browser didn’t update the photo because it was not the active window. When you first come back to a webcam after being away, press the reload (refresh) button to see the latest image. That will get the ball rolling once again.

The webcam page loads but there is no picture. Why?

If you are getting a gray or black rectangle instead of a picture it could mean that you are not visiting during daylight hours. There are no artificial lights in front of the webcams.

Live-stream Webcam Recordings

Head over to the Webcam Videos page to watch some geyser eruptions or wildlife sightings that were recorded by our live-stream webcam volunteers.

Household waste shredders – GorEco

Now you will take out the garbage from the house much less often.

InSinkErator. Worldwide today

Sales of food waste disposers are expected to increase in the coming years as more consumers appreciate their benefits to the modern kitchen. Studies conducted in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Italy, Taiwan, Japan and other parts of the world have shown that consumers see food waste disposers (utilizers, disposers) as an integral part of their future kitchen. Today, nearly 45% of US homes use food waste disposers.

Nearly 80% of new homes in the world are equipped with shredders.
75% of all shredders (utilizers, disposers) produced in the world are InSinkErator devices.

We offer the following model range:

Model 45
Model 55
Model 65
Model 75
Model Evolution 100
Model Evolution 200

M ODEL 45 – the basic and simplest of the grinder models (utilizers, disposers) Waste In Sink Erator.
Advantages:

Economy class model from the entire range of waste shredders (utilizers, disposers) In-Sink-Erator

  • Warranty for shredder 2 years.
  • Waste disposer disadvantages:
  • Low power chopper motor – 0.5 horsepower.
  • Reversible chopper mechanism missing.
  • Small 980 ml crushing chamber capacity.
  • Crushing chamber made of hard plastic materials.
  • Crusher chamber lobes are made of forged stainless steel.

When grinding, fragments of bones and other solid food waste can fall under them, fixing them in a certain position on the crushing chamber disc, which makes it difficult to process (crush) food waste.
Remedy:

Simple: at the moment of rotation of the disk of the crushing chamber during the operation of the In-Sink-Erator food waste disposer, throw a large chicken bone into the crushing chamber.

More complex: fix the chopper motor shaft with a hex wrench and long-handled pliers, turn the cams around its axis.

Complicated: remove the In-Sink-Erator food waste disposer, disassemble it to the crushing chamber disk and do the same as described in point b.

Basic sound attenuating system for grinder, consisting only of a single soundproof shell. No noise dampening cover.

Standard stainless steel flanged chopper outlet (top).

Plastic chopper filler cap to be inserted into the drain hole of the sink (sink stopper).

The In-Sink-Erator food waste disposer switch is not provided.

MODEL 55
Features:

  • Crusher chamber jaws made of stainless steel.
  • Standard shredder noise reduction shroud to partially reduce engine noise.
  • Chopper warranty 3 years.
  • Chopper motor power 0.55 horsepower.
  • Waste disposer disadvantages:
  • Chopper cams made of stamped sheet metal.
  • No reversible chopper mechanism.

The In-Sink-Erator food waste grinder switch is not provided.

MODEL 65
Advantages:

  • Toothed cylinder, disc, crushing chamber jaws made of stainless steel.
  • Silencer cover for Quiet Plus chopper.
  • Chopper warranty 4 years.
  • Chopper motor power 0.65 horsepower.
  • Reversible chopper mechanism for faster and better chopping.
  • Built-in chopper pneumatic switch.
  • Waste disposer disadvantages:
  • Chopper cams made of stamped stainless steel sheet.

MODEL 75
Advantages:

  • Same as Model 65, but with stainless steel cast jaws with counter angles. These contra-angles prevent the cams from locking caused by bone fragments and other solid food waste getting under them.
  • Ultra Quiet-2 Plus double noise-absorbing shredder cover significantly reduces noise.
  • The maximum warranty for the grinder of all models is 5 years.
  • Chopper motor power 0.75 horsepower.
  • The crushing chamber of this model of grinder is completely made of stainless steel, the other models of grinders (utilizers, disposers) of In-Sink-Erator food waste have a plastic crushing chamber.

EVOLUTION 100

Advantages:

  • Supply voltage: 220-240 V, 50 Hz.
  • Power consumption: start – 520W, work-380W.
  • Dimensions: height 312 mm, diameter 205 mm
  • Weight: 8.8 kg.
  • Type of food waste loading: continuous
  • Chamber volume: 1005 ml.
  • 2-tier MultiGrind™
  • Power: 0.7 HP
  • Recycling of any food waste
  • Disc rotation speed: 1425 rpm.
  • Full warranty: 5 years.
  • High Torque Induction Motor
  • All grinding elements in stainless steel. Bolted disc
  • Automatic reversing mechanism
  • Disposer automatic overload protection
  • Stainless steel lock for quick and easy mounting
  • Built-in pneumatic control system: two trims – chrome and stainless steel
  • Housing made of dark (graphite) plastic
  • Sound Isolation: Stretch plastic, color matched to body, Stretch plastic on outlet, new removable collar design combined with splash guard, Includes Quiet Collar™ 9 drain system0033
  • More processing with low noise.
  • Easy reinstallation to replace the old grinder

All advantages!

EVOLUTION 200

Advantages:

  • Supply voltage: 220-240 V, 50 Hz .
  • Power consumption: start – 560W, work-380W.
  • Dimensions: height 344 mm, diameter 234 mm
  • Weight: 11.6 kg.
  • Type of food waste loading: continuous
  • Chamber volume: 1180 ml
  • 3-level MultiGrind Plus™ system with thrust accelerator integrated control processor
  • Power: 0.75 HP
  • Recycling of any food waste
  • Disc rotation speed: 1425 rpm.
  • Full warranty: 6 years.
  • Jam-Sensor Circuit™ Patented system that automatically increases engine torque by 500% when wedged by food debris
  • High Torque Induction Motor
  • All grinding elements in stainless steel. Bolted disc
  • Automatic reversing mechanism
  • Disposer automatic overload protection
  • Stainless steel lock for quick and easy mounting
  • Built-in pneumatic control system: two trims – chrome and stainless steel
  • Light gray stainless steel body
  • Sound Isolation: Gray flexible plastic to match body color, flexible plastic on outlet, new removable collar design combined with splash guard, Includes Quiet Collar™ drain system
  • More processing at the lowest noise level.
  • Easy reinstallation to replace old

Hacking a security camera, features and secrets. Hacking a CCTV camera, features and secrets Protection from peeping

Description

9Apps will supply free applications for android. 10,000+ users downloaded the latest version of Camera Hack on 9Apps for free every week! Use it to upgrade your abilities. This hot app was released on 2016-04-29. You can easily get it from 9Apps!

Camera hack live application of the best Google Play applications welcomed you to hack surveillance cameras of banks cam stores or hack Smartphone cameras in addition to hack mobile cameras and computers.
How to use the application is very easy and just does not need any experience just downloaded and follow the instructions below.
– Opening penetrating camera application and must be connected to the Internet.
– Waiting to open an application.
– Choice of camera quality to penetrate.
– Pointing the phone’s camera at the camera to penetrate.
– Wait a few minutes for penetration to complete.
– Penetration Mubarok you
– When faced with some of the problems, try.
If you are using a laptop or personal computer, the webcam is personal اداتك. However, it is important to know that anyone can break in at any time. You can see spy webcam that you can use cctv your laptop without your permission. It is quite obvious that you want to get the maximum webcam security for you. Live EarthCam cams to protect them from Level One Hackers
Camera Hack changes your camera view to the way it looks like someone has hacked into a secure operating system. This great tool takes a live view of a camera and converts it to an image with only ASCII characters. Each symbol is placed side by side, and drawn with a different color, so that finally the generated image looks almost the same as the view from the phone’s camera.
Have live webcam video streaming from anywhere, always! A great world view for travelers to have a spy sneak peek into travel destinations.
With live camera view you can:
Keyword search cams in each country like USA, UK, Canada, Germany, Australia, Russia, Ukraine
Select cams by country, HD, category like cities, weather, traffic, restaurants, offices, zoos, airports, beaches, etc.
How to vote for the best cameras, customize your cam collection
Saving camera snapshots
For each animation frame, a character is webcams around the world randomly selected from an ASCII table. As a result, we get a very interesting effect, which is similar to a movie scene where a group of hackers are trying to view webcams to crack the password and break into a secure system.
Camera Hack is also an ideal tool for creating ASCII Art. You can choose on your own which characters, words orlive cams pro sentences will be used to create a live camera ASCii image. The built-in “take photo” button allows you to save the actual ASCII Art result in your live camera photo album without any effort.
The application gives you the choice to create the final effect with:
– Custom characters, words, phrase.
– Randomly select and change each frame of animation ASCII characters
– Randomly selected numbers
Camera Hack main features:
– Four modes to choose the best end effect
– Front/back camera switch
– Instant “take photo” button
Also , you will get a beach wallpaper in ASCII art format and a home screen widget as a shortcut app.
Monitor is probably the best remote monitoring, control and digital video recording application for your private or public network or IP cameras, video encoders and DVRs.
Camera Hack Monitor Free is the free, TRENDnet version of Camera Hack Monitor.
TRENDnet Edimax Foscam MOBOTIX snapshot VIVOTEK ONVIF surveillance RTSP hacker world cam hacker app live cams EarthCam aforismi Wallpaper, hack
Camera Features Hack monitor free edition:
– ONVIF cameras support.
– Support for M-JPEG devices based on all major manufacturers, such as Axis, Amcrest, Foscam, D-Link, Edimax, Panasonic, Pixord, TRENDnet, MOBOTIX, VIVOTEK.
– 1-way audio (listening) demo mode (only 30 seconds).
– Sequence mode for switching automatic cameras.
– Control PTZ (Pan / Tilt / Zoom) enabled devices.
– One click camera exchange via email.
– Import / export settings in local storage or cloud service.
– Digital zoom.
– Snapshot.
Disclaimer: If you have any problems while running this app or have ideas on how to improve our app, please send an email.

Now we are facing the problem that the size of android apps is getting bigger and bigger. This top application is just 2.2M Entertainment. It wastes almost no cellular data when you use it. 9Apps also provides other hot Fun apps(games) for android mobile phone. Download now and share with your friends.

Hacking outdoor and indoor surveillance cameras today can be carried out by almost every web user, for this you will need to know the ip of the device connected to the network, or you can do without it. As an example, it will take a look at a few basic methods that really work (and for some of them, potential hackers have already managed to get time). It is possible that a potential hacker of the system does not need to know ip in order to hack the camera using other methods for this purpose.

SQL Injection Technique

Quite an original way of SQL injection, which was put into practice by a resident of Poland. The essence of the technique lies in the formation of a certain set of incoming data, through which a certain command of the language used today to work with a set of relational parameters on the web is included. For this, the ip address may not be required, it is enough just to know the features of the formation of data systems through the language.

Working conditions are important, namely:

  • Quite incorrect ability to handle login parameters.
  • A thorough set of knowledge of the very structure and specifics of the cracker database.
  • The presence of certain rights relevant for subsequent work with SQL commands from the web.

This approach will allow you to perform many tasks in the target web base, in particular, and hack the camera (for example, it can be the same web camera installed as an element of the surveillance system). The SQL injection technique can be used very well in case of speeding by the driver of the vehicle. The main secret lies in the original number of the vehicle, which, in fact, when transmitted to the camera, will look like incorrectly entered data, and the program for entering it into the database of violators will not be able to recognize and fix it.

Using software

Webcam hacking can be easily done by using special software. True, the key feature can be called the need to find out the ip of the user, no matter what region he is in. Checking the user’s ip is quite simple, you just need to receive a message from him, any other information, in the system data of which the corresponding address will be indicated. It is worth noting that ip can be defined for both dynamic and floating parameters, regardless of the location of the potential object. The only exception will be the use of a proxy, in which case the ip will be hidden, but with cameras this is rare, hacking a web laptop should go without any problems.

The program is one of the methods of hacking CCTV cameras

After the ip has been identified, you need to start working with the software that is offered today on the web in just a huge variety of options. The effectiveness of the program depends on the choice, because not all programs presented on the web network will allow you to quickly and reliably hack the system. For example, one can single out a program that is quite popular in all respects on the web called ICMHacker, convenient and accessible to any user.

One of the systems for protecting cameras from possible hacking will be an optimally developed password system. For example, Samsung products will require the owner to change the factory passwords to their own. An open issue is the administrator password, which can become available to any web users, but manufacturers are actively working to eliminate the problem, eliminating the possibility of hacking.

Remote access to webcams and surveillance cameras is the most obvious hacking practice. It does not require special software, allowing you to get by with just a browser and simple manipulations. Thousands of digital eyes around the world will become available if you can find their IP addresses and vulnerabilities.

WARNING

The article is of a research nature. It is addressed to security specialists and those who are going to become them. When writing it, public databases were used. Neither the editors nor the author are responsible for the unethical use of any of the information mentioned here.

Eyes wide shut

CCTV is used primarily for security, so don’t expect funny pictures from the first hacked camera. You may be lucky enough to quickly find an HD feed from a high-end brothel, but more often you will come across boring views of deserted warehouses and parking lots with VGA resolution. If there are people in the frame, then they are mostly waiters in the lobby and zhruns in the cafe. It is much more interesting to observe the operators themselves and the work of all sorts of robots.

IP cameras and webcams are often confused, although they are fundamentally different devices. A network camera, or IP camera, is a self-sufficient surveillance tool. It is controlled via a web interface and independently transmits a video stream over the network. In fact, it is a microcomputer with its own OS based on Linux. An Ethernet (RJ-45) or Wi-Fi network interface allows direct connection to the IP camera. Previously, proprietary client applications were used for this, but most modern cameras are controlled through a browser from any device – even from a computer, even from a smartphone. As a rule, IP cameras are always on and accessible remotely. This is what hackers use.

A webcam is a passive device that is controlled locally from a computer (via USB) or laptop (if built-in) via an operating system driver. This driver can be of two different types: universal (pre-installed in the OS and suitable for many cameras from different manufacturers) and custom-written for a specific model. The hacker’s task here is already different: not to connect to the webcam, but to intercept its video stream, which it broadcasts through the driver. The webcam does not have a separate IP address and a built-in web server. Therefore, hacking a webcam is always a consequence of hacking the computer to which it is connected. Let’s put the theory aside for now and practice a little.

Hacking surveillance cameras

Hacking IP cameras does not mean that someone is in charge of the computer from which the owner watches their video stream. It’s just that now he’s not watching it alone. These are separate and rather easy goals, but there are enough pitfalls on the way to them.

WARNING

Peeping through cameras may result in civil and criminal penalties. Usually they give a fine, but not everyone gets off lightly. Matthew Anderson served a year and a half for hacking webcams with a Trojan. Repeating his feat was awarded for four years.

First, remote access to the selected camera can only be supported through a specific browser. Some give fresh Chrome or Firefox, while others only work with old IE. Secondly, the video stream is broadcast on the Internet in different formats. Somewhere to view it, you will need to install the VLC plugin, other cameras will require Flash Player, and still others will not show anything without an old version of Java or their own plugin.

Sometimes there are non-trivial solutions. For example, the Raspberry Pi is turned into a video surveillance server with nginx and broadcasts video via RTMP.

By design, an IP camera is protected from intrusion by two secrets: its IP address and account password. In practice, IP addresses are hardly a secret. They are easily detected at standard addresses, and cameras respond equally to requests from search robots. For example, in the following screenshot, you can see that the owner of the camera has disabled anonymous access to the camera and added a CAPTCHA entry to prevent automated attacks. However, using the direct link /index. htm, you can change them without authorization.

Vulnerable surveillance cameras can be found through Google or another search engine using advanced queries. For example:

Inurl:”wvhttp-01″
inurl:”viewerframe?mode=”
inurl:”videostream.cgi”
inurl:”webcapture”
inurl:”snap.jpg”
inurl:”snapshot.jpg”
inurl:”video.mjpg”

Another great IoT search engine is ZoomEye. Cameras are found in it by requests device:webcam or device:media device .

You can also search the old fashioned way, corny scanning ranges of IP addresses in search of a characteristic response from the camera. You can get a list of IP addresses of a certain city on this web service. There’s also a port scanner in case you still don’t have your own.

We are primarily interested in ports 8000, 8080, and 8888, since they are often set by default. You can find out the default port number for a specific camera in its manual. The number is almost never changed. Naturally, other services can be found on any port, so the search results will have to be further filtered.

RTFM!

Finding out the model of a detected camera is easy: it is usually listed on the front page of the web interface and in its settings.

When I said at the beginning of the article about controlling cameras through the “proprietary client application”, I meant programs like iVMS 4xxx, which comes with Hikvision cameras. On the developer’s website, you can read the Russian-language manual for the program and the cameras themselves. If you find such a camera, then with a high probability it will have a factory password, and the program will provide full access to it.

Surveillance camera passwords are a lot of fun. On some cameras there is simply no password and there is no authorization at all. Others have a default password, which is easy to find in the camera manual. The ipvm.com website has published a list of the most common logins and passwords installed on different camera models.

It often happens that a manufacturer has left a service entry for service centers in the camera’s firmware. It remains open even after the camera owner has changed the default password. You can’t read it in the manual, but you can find it on thematic forums.

The big problem is that many cameras use the same GoAhead web server. It has several known vulnerabilities that camera manufacturers are in no hurry to patch.

GoAhead, in particular, is susceptible to a stack overflow that can be caused by a simple HTTP GET request. The situation is further complicated by the fact that Chinese manufacturers modify GoAhead in their firmware, adding new holes.

In the code of other firmware there are such blunders as curved conditional jumps. Such a camera opens access if you enter the wrong password or simply press the “Cancel” button several times. During our research, I came across more than a dozen of these cameras. So, if you’re tired of sorting through default passwords, try clicking Cancel – there is a chance to suddenly gain access.

Medium and high-end cameras are equipped with swivel mounts. Hacking this, you can change the angle and fully examine everything around. It is especially entertaining to play dragging the camera when, besides you, someone else is trying to control it at the same time. In the general case, the attacker gets full control of the camera directly from his browser, simply by accessing the desired address.

When talking about thousands of vulnerable cameras, I want to take a closer look at at least one. I propose to start with the popular manufacturer Foscam. Remember what I said about the service entrances? So Foscam cameras and many others have them. In addition to the built-in admin account, the password for which is recommended to be set when you first turn on the camera, there is another account – operator. Its default password is empty, and rarely anyone guesses to change it.

In addition, Foscam cameras have very recognizable addresses due to template registration. In general, it looks like xxxxxx.myfoscam.org:88 , where the first two xx are Latin letters, and the next four are a serial number in decimal format.

If the camera is connected to an IP DVR, you can not only remotely monitor in real time, but also view the previous recordings.

How the motion detector works

Professional surveillance cameras are equipped with an additional sensor – motion detector, which works even in total darkness thanks to the IR receiver. This is more interesting than the always-on IR illumination, as it does not unmask the camera and allows it to conduct covert surveillance. People always glow in the near infrared range (at least living ones). As soon as the sensor detects movement, the controller starts recording. If the photocell indicates low light, the backlight is additionally switched on. And exactly at the time of recording, when it is too late to close from the lens.

Cheap cameras are simpler. They do not have a separate motion sensor, but instead use a frame comparison from the webcam itself. If the picture differs from the previous one, it means that something has changed in the frame and it is necessary to record it. If the movement is not fixed, then the series of frames is simply deleted. This saves space, traffic and time for subsequent rewinding of the video. Most motion detectors are configurable. You can set a trigger threshold to not record any movement in front of the camera, and set up additional alerts. For example, send SMS and the last photo from the camera directly to your smartphone.

The software motion detector is much inferior to the hardware one and often causes incidents. In the course of my research, I came across two cameras that continuously sent alerts and recorded gigabytes of “compromising evidence”. All alarms turned out to be false. The first camera was installed outside some warehouse. It was overgrown with cobwebs that trembled in the wind and drove the motion detector crazy. The second camera was located in the office opposite the blinking lights of the router. In both cases, the trigger threshold was too low.

Hacking webcams

Webcams that work through a generic driver are often referred to as UVC compliant (from USB Video Class – UVC). Hacking a UVC camera is easier because it uses a standard and well-documented protocol. However, in any case, in order to gain access to the webcam, an attacker would first have to take control of the computer to which it is connected.

Technically, access to webcams on computers with Windows of any version and bitness is carried out through the camera driver, DirectDraw filters and VFW codecs. However, a novice hacker does not need to go into all these details if he is not going to write an advanced backdoor. It is enough to take any “rat” (RAT – Remote Admin Tool) and slightly modify it. There are a lot of remote administration tools today. In addition to handpicked backdoors from VX Heaven, there are also quite legitimate utilities like Ammyy Admin, LiteManager, LuminosityLink, Team Viewer or Radmin. All that optionally needs to be changed in them is to set up automatic acceptance of remote connection requests and minimize the main window. Then it’s up to the methods of social engineering.

A code-modified rat is downloaded by the victim via a phishing link or crawls into the victim’s computer through the first hole it finds. For information on how to automate this process, see the article “”. By the way, be careful: most of the links to “camera hacking programs” are phishing themselves and can lead you to download malware.

For the average user, the webcam is inactive most of the time. Usually, an LED warns of its activation, but even with such an alert, covert surveillance can be performed. As it turned out, the webcam activity indication can be turned off even if the power of the LED and the CMOS matrix are physically interconnected. This has already been done with the iSight webcams built into the MacBook. Researchers Broker and Checkoway from Johns Hopkins University have written a utility that runs as a simple user and, exploiting a vulnerability in the Cypress controller, replaces its firmware. After iSeeYou is launched by the victim, the attacker is able to turn on the camera without lighting its activity indicator.

Vulnerabilities are regularly found in other microcontrollers. A Prevx specialist collected a whole collection of such exploits and showed examples of their use. Almost all of the vulnerabilities found were related to 0day, but among them were long-known vulnerabilities that manufacturers simply did not intend to fix.

There are more and more ways to deliver exploits, and it’s getting harder to catch them. Antiviruses often succumb to modified PDF files, have preset limits for scanning large files, and cannot scan encrypted malware components. Moreover, polymorphism or constant recompilation of the payload has become the norm, so signature analysis has long faded into the background. Deploying a Trojan that allows remote access to a webcam has become extremely simple today. This is one of the popular pastimes among trolls and script kiddies.

Turning a webcam into a surveillance camera

Any webcam can be turned into a kind of IP camera if you install a video surveillance server on the device connected to it. On computers, many people use the old webcamXP, the slightly newer webcam 7 and similar programs for this purpose.

There is a similar software for smartphones – for example, Salient Eye. This program can save videos to cloud hosting, freeing up the local memory of the smartphone. However, there are enough holes in such programs and the OS itself, so hacking webcams controlled by them often turns out to be no more difficult than IP cameras with leaky firmware.

Smartphone as a means of surveillance

Recently, old smartphones and tablets are often adapted for home video surveillance. Most often, Android Webcam Server is installed on them – a simple application that broadcasts a video stream from a built-in camera to the Internet. It accepts requests on port 8080 and opens the control panel to the aptly named /remote.html page. Once on it, you can change the camera settings and watch the image directly in the browser window (with or without sound).

Usually such smartphones show rather dull pictures. It is unlikely that you are interested in looking at a sleeping dog or at a car parked near the house. However, Android Webcam Server and similar applications can be used differently. In addition to the rear camera, smartphones also have a front camera. Why don’t we turn it on? Then we will see the other side of the life of a smartphone owner.

Anti-peeping protection

The first thing that comes to most people’s minds after demonstrating easy camera hacking is to tape them up. The owners of webcams with shutters believe that their problem of peeping does not concern them, and in vain. Eavesdropping is also possible, because, in addition to the lens, the cameras have a microphone.

Developers of antiviruses and other software protection systems use confusion in terminology to promote their products. They scare you with cam hacking statistics (which are really impressive when you include IP cameras), but they themselves offer a solution for controlling access to webcams, and a technically limited one at that.

The protection of IP cameras can be improved by simple means: updating the firmware, changing the password, changing the port and disabling default accounts, and enabling IP address filtering. However, this is not enough. Many firmwares have unresolved bugs that allow access without any authorization – for example, at the standard address of a web page from LiveView or the settings panel. When you find another leaky firmware, you just want to update it remotely!

Webcam hacking is another matter entirely. This is always the tip of the iceberg. Usually, by the time the attacker gained access to it, he had already managed to frolic on local drives, steal the accounts of all accounts, or make the computer part of a botnet.

The same Kaspersky Internet Security prevents unauthorized access only to the webcam video stream. It won’t stop a hacker from changing her settings or turning on her microphone. The list of models it protects is officially limited to Microsoft and Logitech webcams.